Thus in their review of successful interventions to prevent injury in developing countries, Forjuoh and Li, p. 1551 (Forjuoh and Li, 1996), assert that, `The lack of knowledge about the causes of injury, along with the low level of education in many countries...has resulted in people's adherence to the fatalistic theory of injury as acts of God'. Sidell, M., Jones. Conrad, P., Bradshaw, Y., Lamsudin, R., Kasniyah, N. and Costello, C. (, Davison, C., Davey Smith, G. and Frankel, S. (. Thus, Tones et al., p. 55 (Tones et al., 1990), note. It may be possible, however, to pursue engineering and enforcement measures, and those which generally help to provide a more `supportive environment' in ways which are neither paternalistic nor unacceptable to the people. This view is located within the dominant health promotion discourse which stresses the values of rationality, logical thought, planned decision making, self-efficacy and an internal locus of control. Some traditional umbilical cord care practices in developing countries. HHS About 90% of babies are delivered by mostly untrained traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and healers. A number of ways forward are suggested. The parents of 74 of the 76 children had never heard of the disease, many had no idea of its causation and one-third incriminated witchcraft. Routes linking major metropolitan centres, such as the IbadanâLagos Expressway, are particularly dangerous. Thus it is possible to create safer environments without consulting the public whose safety is being protected. Bathing in boiling water results in many women being burned or disfigured; gishiri cut has resulted in vesicovaginal fistula in many young girls. This study further underscores the need to incorporate folk theories of disease causation, gender and malaria issues into malaria control strategies in order to improve their coverage and effectiveness in different contexts. Locals are presumed to subscribe to alternative disease models rooted in âtraditional healing,â believe in sorcery or the â¦ (Davison et al., 1991). eCollection 2017. Ironically, the petrol shortages in Nigeria may lead to a reduction in RTAs. (ed. Another commented, `If there is an accident they can go to the babalawo and perhaps you have done something you shouldn't do'. The death of many Nigerians is believed to be caused by forces outside the deceased. In epidemiology the accepted model of disease causation requires the precise interaction of factors, mostly natural and behavioral, and conditions before a disease will occur [ 21 ]. Using the PEN-3 cultural model as a guide, we searched electronic â¦ Each person has an ori (loosely translated as `head' but also as destiny), chosen for him or her. (ed.) The other main causes were snake bites (seven deaths), gun shot wounds (two deaths) and electric shock (two deaths). (1979) Yoruba Beliefs and Sacrificial Rites. Secondly, there needs to be a more critical and self-reflexive critique of health promotion. In the Western worldview, an Act of God is a label applied only when all `rational' explanations have been exhausted. (Sahdev et al., 1994) have shown that after an accident, lack of pre-hospital care, delays in transportation and failure to diagnose correctly lead to a higher fatality rate. Such a focus may well be more useful for health planners than the one that emphasizes the differences between African and biomedical notions of causation. Dixey, R. A. The aims of this paper are to highlight the issue of accidents and unintentional injuries in developing countries, with a focus on Nigeria, and to question the suitability of transferring to poorer countries strategies formulated in Western, industrialized countries. Likewise, the continued reliance on kerosene and other fuels for cooking is likely to continue to cause burns and poisonings. (eds), Accident Control and Safety Measures in Mass Transit Operations in Nigeria. (1995) Accidents and the risk society: some problems with prevention, in Bunton, R., Nettleton, S. and Burrows, R. (eds), The Sociology of Health Promotion. Of the 54 accidental deaths, 31 (57%) were caused by RTAs. In Oyediran, A. There is widespread use of traditional healers and sometimes villagers go to the clinic or hospital only when other remedies have failed. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. These data could provide a basis upon which to frame proposals for a larger study. Green, J. `Community participation' is clearly an attempt to ensure that the health promotion agenda is not simply imposed, but that people are consulted and involved to varying degrees. Safety as a Social Value. Thomas Kuhn has referred to such changes in accepted theories as "Paradigm Shifts". The practice of consulting a babalawo is widespread and approximately 160 such Ifa priests live in Igbo-Ora. Clarendon Press, Oxford. PIP: In other words a person who believes that life's choices are governed by the vagaries of fate or determined by a conspiracy of powerful others and faceless organizations will be less likely to mobilize the personal resources needed to face a potentially threatening situation. buying of licences and certificates) and yet people still need to travel to make a living. The babalawo might also be consulted after an accident to find out whether the person felt to have caused the accident or who had been its victim had done anything `wrong'. These beliefs raise complex questions for the health promoter intent on preventing accidents or minimizing their effects. Theories of disease causation Presented by: Monika sharma M.Sc. disease as a result of increased popula-tion density; eventual development of global trade with a concomitant increase in potential for disease spread over wide geographic regions; and increased mor-tality, which, in keeping with the epide-miologic transition model, would lead to increased birth rate. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error, Newsl Inter Afr Comm Tradit Pract Affect Health Women Child. Iyang, E. E (1991) Measures of reducing accidents and improving productivityâthe experience of Inyang Ette Motors Ltd. This definition derives from Goodenoughâs 8 definition of culture as that knowledge that one must possess to function adequately in society, but it incorporates as well recent insights from â¦ Sahdev et al. As seen above, the descriptions given for causes of accidents are not too helpful for health promotion purposes. Open University Press, Buckingham. These fundamental theories are likely to have a strong influence on the health behaviors of many patients/families served by CCHAP practices. From anecdotal evidence it would seem that there may be a tendency to treat home and farm accidents within the home, whereas road accident victims are more likely to be taken to the clinic. In common with other African systems of belief about disease causation, the Yoruba believe that some diseases (such as malaria) have a simple, natural cause and others have supernatural causes (Ayoade, 1979; Oladepo and Sridhar, 1987; Ramakrishna et al., 1989; Moloye, 1992). UNESCO, London. Twenty informal interviews were carried out with local people at their homes; this was a purposive sample and all the respondents were women, as data were also being collected on reproductive health. When new meets old: collaborating on safer birthing methods in Nigeria. Zed Books, London. PhD thesis. In addition, `fatalism' needs to be seen within its social context: `Fatalism, in some situations, is better construed as a realistic appraisal of the potential for individual control rather than an intrapersonal quality associated with an external locus of control' [see Rogers et al., p. 33 (Rogers et al., 1997)]. Unintentional injury rates in developing countries have increased to become a significant cause of premature death and morbidity (Bradley et al., 1992; Zwi, 1993; Murray and Lopez, 1994). Medical students, who had worked in accident and emergency facilities, felt that the Yoruba belief in predestination was a `major problem' in relation to accident prevention work and that education was needed. So you know the question of wearing safety helmet or something like that doesn't arrive before because you are asked not to travel. Many of the `answers' to road safety were present in theory at the training workshop on `Accidents and Safety Control of Mass Transit Operations in Nigeria' held in 1990 in Benin City (Bolade and Ogunsanaya, 1991). Poorer countries have lower private vehicle ownership, high rates of passenger vehicle accidents, use of open-back vehicles (Nelson and Strueber, 1991), reliance on motorcycles (Falope, 1991) and `token compliance' with, for example, motorcycle helmet wearing (Conrad et al., 1995) or seat belt use (Hauswald, 1997). Nigeria reached a certain level of development where, for example, fast, straight roads were built, but vehicle maintenance and enforcement of regulations have not kept pace (Asogwa, 1992). 117â122. Accidents and unintentional injury in developing countries, Increasing poverty and structural adjustment programmes, Health promotion discourse and accident prevention, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic. Washing one's ori/head was an important ritual and potions were available also to rub onto one's ori. healing traditions of a given culture. The data do not indicate whether those involved were car occupants, pedestrians or other vehicle users. There is some evidence of the effect of SAPs on health (Onimode, 1989) but the precise relationship between SAPs, economic decline and increases in injuries requires further empirical research. Lay theories of schizophrenia: A . 2017 Jan 16;4(1):19-32. doi: 10.3934/publichealth.2017.1.19. Bunton, R., Nettleton, S. and Burrows, R. (1995) The Sociology of Health Promotion. The health promotion interventions intended to prevent or minimize the consequences of accidents have been developed in predominantly Western, industrialized countries. Pre-destination is only one type of explanation for misfortune; there are also other factors such as transgression of taboos, ancestors, jealousy from others, and what Westerners call `witchcraft'. (eds), Accident Control and Safety Measures in Mass Transit Operations in Nigeria. All informants saw accidents as a major problem, but the lay people had little to say apart from shaking their heads and agreeing how sad it was. Interviews with key informants were held in March 1994 in Igbo-Ora and data were extracted from hospital records. More generally, African culture is seen as an obstacle to overcome when implementing outbreak control. a certain Other harmful practices are purging of infants to get rid of impurities "they might have swallowed while in the uterus;" uvulectomy in infants, and induction of postpartum hemorrhage to clear the uterus of impure blood. NLM Psychosocial and cultural factors associated with the management of spina bifida cystica in Nigeria. The babalawo's role is to tell the future, not to give `safety medicine'. Specifically, the main learning objective of introduction to sociocultural anthropology is to familiarize students with the basic ideas, issues, concepts and principles of anthropology. Currently, Nigeria alone accounts for 30% of the burden of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Female circumcision and vaginal mutilation and also common in Nigerian culture. If it is not safe, the babalawo may ask for a sacrifice to be made, for example, of a chicken; `as soon as you make the sacrifice the road is clear for you, so that's it'. 116â132. (eds), Accident Control and Safety Measures in Mass Transit Operations in Nigeria. In summary, this contemporary health promotion discourse is predominantly Western and secular, and possibly sits uneasily with other liberal values such as respecting other people's cultural sensitivities. Another study in Igbo-Ora found that 43.4% of apprentices to a variety of trades (including tailoring, motor mechanic, barbering, etc.) (eds), Accident Control and Safety Measures in Mass Transit Operations in Nigeria. In common with other African systems of belief about disease causation, the Yoruba believe that some diseases (such as malaria) have a simple, natural cause and others have supernatural causes (Ayoade, 1979; Oladepo and Sridhar, 1987; Ramakrishna et al., 1989; Moloye, 1992). (1991) Accidents and safety in Nigeria: the way ahead. B., Fasawe, T. C., Nnamso, O. E . The stress on the importance of individuals taking control of their lives, of being `empowered' and directing their lives from within rather than seeing themselves as controlled by external forces is at odds with a number of other `ways of seeing', which dispute that it is the case that one can take charge of one's own destiny, or indeed, that this is desirable. Trop Med Int Health. (1991) Safety and accident preventative measuresâthe experience of the Bendel Line. Sahdev, P., Lacqua, M., Singh, B. and Dogra, T. (. Asogwa's (Asogwa, 1980) before-and-after study of motorcycle helmet legislation in Nigeria showed a sharp increase in injuries and fatalities after introduction of the legislation! Recommendations as to the way forward are then proposed. Ibadan University Press, Ibadan, pp. However, there is still a lack of recognition by some countries and funding agencies of the importance of unintentional injuries as a health problem. Regarding `accidents', it is very possible that an injury was intended, as the individual has failed in some duty or was predestined to suffer such an `accident'. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Health promotion is therefore faced with a dilemma. In Bolade, T. and Ogunsaya, A. Setiloane (Setiloane, 1978), noting the derogatory connotation of `witchcraft', has argued that Africans need to define their own terms rather than relying on colonial translations of concepts important to African cultures. Hospital data only record cases which reach hospitalâand these may not necessarily be the most severe. Needless to say, such research needs to be qualitative (Ramakrishna and Brieger, 1987). A number of developing countries have adopted countermeasures such as speed limits and controls on drink-driving, and legislation for seat belts and motorcycle helmets (Zwi, 1993). (1962) Oludumare: God in Yoruba Belief. Ideas about illness causation may include such ideas as breach of taboo, soul loss, germs, upset in the hot-cold balance of the body, or a weakening of the body's immune system. Disease Causation â Henle-Koch Postulates: (1877) A set of 4 criteria to be met before the relationship between a particular infectious agent and a particular disease is accepted as causal. (eds), African Therapeutic Systems. (1989) The IMF, the World Bank and the African Debt: 2. According to him, disease causation can be due to "things we see and things we don't see". It is a commonly held view, both from the Nigerian literature and from anecdotal evidence, that life is much harder now than during the comparatively rich years of the oil boom. The list goes on and on. Newsl Inter Afr Comm Tradit Pract Affect Health Women Child. In Bolade, T. and Ogunsaya, A. Search for other works by this author on: Effectiveness of pictographs in improving patient education outcomes: a systematic review, Parenting style as longitudinal predictor of adolescentsâ health behaviors in Lebanon, Getting the right message: a content analysis and application of the health literacy INDEX tool to online HIV resources in Australia, Is type of practice setting associated with physicianâs cultural competency training? 1995. The latter include sorcery, witchcraft and `spirit instructions'. Patients may have symptoms that approximately match a set of symptoms that typically occur in people with a particular disease. The exploratory study was carried out in Igbo-Ora, a Yoruba town of 30 000 people in the southwest of Nigeria that is particularly well documented as it has been the location for the Ibarapa Community Health project, established by University College Hospital, Ibadan, since 1976. 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